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Design Thinking

Design Thinking

Design thinking is an iterative, non-linear process which focuses on a collaboration between designers and users. It brings innovative solutions to life based on how real users think, feel and behave. This human-centered design process consists of five core stages Empathize, Define, Ideate, Prototype and Test.

What is design thinking?

Design thinking is a problem-solving methodology that places emphasis on understanding user needs, generating creative ideas, and creating practical solutions. It originated in the field of design but has since been adopted and applied in various industries and domains.

Design Thinking Stages

At its core, design thinking involves a human-centered approach to tackling complex problems and fostering innovation. It typically consists of several iterative stages, which may vary depending on the specific framework or methodology used, but generally include the following:

  1. Empathize: Design thinkers seek to understand the perspectives and experiences of the people who are facing the problem. They engage in research, interviews, and observations to gain empathy and gather insights about the users’ needs, motivations, and challenges.
  2. Define: In this stage, the designers synthesize the information gathered during the empathy phase and identify the key problem(s) or opportunity areas to address. They form a clear problem statement that guides the subsequent stages of the process.
  3. Ideate: Designers engage in a brainstorming phase to generate a wide range of ideas, free from judgment or constraints. They encourage wild and creative thinking to explore different possibilities and potential solutions. Techniques like mind mapping, sketching, and collaborative workshops are often employed during this phase.
  4. Prototype: Selected ideas from the ideation phase are transformed into tangible representations or prototypes. These can take various forms, such as physical models, digital mock-ups, or even role-playing scenarios. Prototyping allows designers to quickly test and gather feedback on their ideas and assumptions.
  5. Test: Prototypes are presented and tested with the target users or stakeholders. This stage involves gathering feedback, observing user interactions, and refining the prototypes based on the insights gained. The aim is to validate or invalidate assumptions and iteratively improve the solutions.

Design thinking encourages an iterative and flexible approach, where designers cycle through these stages multiple times, refining their understanding and solutions based on user feedback. The process fosters collaboration, multidisciplinary perspectives, and a focus on real-world outcomes. It encourages designers to challenge assumptions, take risks, and think creatively to arrive at innovative solutions.

DesignThinking.ogv: What is Design Thinking? Design thinking a fuzzy concept that is often a buzzword in the business community. This video brings design thinking to life by way of a real world example.

The design thinker

A Design Thinker is an individual who embraces the principles and practices of design thinking. They apply a human-centered and iterative approach to problem-solving and innovation. Here are some key activities that a Design Thinker typically engages in:

  1. Empathy and User Research: Design Thinkers focus on understanding users and their needs by conducting research, interviews, observations, and other methods to gain deep insights into user experiences, behaviors, and motivations.
  2. Problem Framing and Definition: Design Thinkers work on defining the problem statement or design challenge, ensuring a clear understanding of the problem to be solved. They collaborate with stakeholders to identify the scope, goals, and constraints of the project.
  3. Ideation and Creative Thinking: Design Thinkers generate a wide range of ideas and potential solutions through brainstorming sessions, ideation techniques, and creative exercises. They encourage open-mindedness, embrace diverse perspectives, and explore unconventional ideas.
  4. Prototyping and Testing: Design Thinkers create prototypes of their ideas, ranging from low-fidelity sketches or wireframes to high-fidelity interactive prototypes. They test these prototypes with users, gather feedback, and iterate on their designs based on user insights and observations.
  5. Collaboration and Cross-Disciplinary Work: Design Thinkers thrive in collaborative environments. They work closely with multidisciplinary teams, including researchers, engineers, marketers, and stakeholders, fostering an inclusive and participatory approach to problem-solving.
  6. Iteration and Refinement: Design Thinkers embrace an iterative process, continuously refining and improving their designs based on feedback, insights, and data. They iterate on prototypes, make adjustments, and challenge assumptions to create more effective and impactful solutions.
  7. Visualization and Communication: Design Thinkers use visual and verbal communication techniques to effectively convey their ideas, insights, and design concepts. They create compelling visualizations, storyboards, and presentations to engage stakeholders and gain support for their designs.
  8. User-Centered Design: Design Thinkers prioritize the needs and experiences of users throughout the design process. They advocate for creating solutions that address real user problems, enhance usability, and provide meaningful experiences.
  9. Facilitation and Design Workshops: Design Thinkers often facilitate workshops and collaborative sessions to foster creativity, innovation, and problem-solving. They guide participants through design activities, encourage participation, and help teams generate ideas and insights.
  10. Continuous Learning and Growth Mindset: Design Thinkers embrace a growth mindset, constantly seeking opportunities to learn, explore new ideas, and improve their skills. They stay updated with design trends, emerging technologies, and user-centered methodologies.

A Design Thinker approaches problem-solving with empathy, creativity, and a deep understanding of users. They combine analytical thinking with a bias toward action, embracing an iterative and collaborative approach to create innovative and impactful solutions.

Design thinking and innovation

Design thinking and innovation are closely interconnected concepts that often go hand in hand. Design thinking is a methodology that provides a structured approach to problem-solving and fosters innovation by focusing on human needs, creativity, and iterative prototyping. Let’s explore the relationship between design thinking and innovation in more detail:

  1. Human-Centered Approach: Design thinking starts with understanding the needs, desires, and challenges of the people who will use or be affected by a solution. This user-centric perspective helps uncover unmet needs and opportunities for innovation. By empathizing with users and gaining deep insights into their experiences, designers can develop innovative solutions that truly address their pain points and aspirations.
  2. Creative Problem-Solving: Design thinking encourages a mindset of creative exploration and divergent thinking. It emphasizes generating a wide range of ideas, including unconventional and out-of-the-box solutions. By encouraging a free flow of ideas and embracing ambiguity, design thinking allows for innovative approaches and novel concepts to emerge.
  3. Iterative Prototyping: Design thinking involves rapid prototyping and testing of ideas to gather feedback and refine solutions. This iterative process allows designers to experiment and learn from failures and successes. By continuously iterating and refining prototypes based on user feedback, designers can uncover innovative insights and refine their solutions to meet user needs more effectively.
  4. Collaboration and Multidisciplinary Teams: Design thinking promotes collaboration and diverse perspectives. It encourages multidisciplinary teams to come together, leveraging their collective knowledge and expertise. By incorporating diverse viewpoints and skill sets, design thinking enhances the potential for innovative solutions that draw upon a wide range of insights and ideas.
  5. Embracing Risk and Learning from Failure: Design thinking creates a safe space for taking risks and embracing failure as an opportunity to learn and improve. This mindset of experimentation and learning fosters an environment conducive to innovation. By encouraging designers to explore unconventional ideas and test them early on, design thinking helps identify potential breakthroughs and avoid wasted resources on ideas that may not work.

Design thinking provides a framework and mindset that can enhance the likelihood of innovative outcomes. It helps to uncover unmet needs, generate creative ideas, and iterate on solutions based on user feedback. By combining a human-centered approach, creative problem-solving, iterative prototyping, collaboration, and a willingness to take risks, design thinking can be a powerful catalyst for innovation.

Creative problem-solving and design thinking

Creative problem-solving and design thinking are closely related and often used in conjunction to address complex challenges. While creative problem-solving is a broader concept that encompasses various problem-solving approaches, design thinking is a specific methodology within the realm of creative problem-solving. Let’s explore their relationship:

Creative Problem-Solving
Creative problem-solving refers to the process of finding innovative solutions to challenges or obstacles. It involves thinking beyond traditional methods and approaches, exploring different perspectives, and generating novel ideas. Creative problem-solving is not limited to a specific methodology or framework and can be applied in various domains.

Design Thinking
Design thinking is a structured approach to creative problem-solving that originated in the field of design but has since been adopted across disciplines. It is characterized by a human-centered approach, emphasis on empathy and understanding user needs, and iterative prototyping and testing.

Relationship between Creative Problem-Solving and Design Thinking:

  1. Mindset: Both creative problem-solving and design thinking require a mindset that encourages exploration, open-mindedness, and curiosity. They both involve challenging assumptions, thinking beyond obvious solutions, and embracing new and unconventional ideas.
  2. User-Centricity: Design thinking, as a part of creative problem-solving, places a strong emphasis on understanding the needs and perspectives of users or stakeholders. It encourages empathy and insights gathering to inform the problem-solving process. Creative problem-solving, on the other hand, may or may not have the same level of user-centric focus, depending on the specific context.
  3. Iterative Process: Both creative problem-solving and design thinking involve an iterative process of generating ideas, prototyping, testing, and refining. They recognize the value of learning from failures and using feedback to improve and iterate on solutions.
  4. Collaborative Approach: Creative problem-solving and design thinking often involve collaboration and the integration of diverse perspectives. They encourage multidisciplinary teams to come together, bringing their unique expertise and insights to solve complex problems collectively.

While creative problem-solving can encompass a broader range of problem-solving approaches, design thinking provides a specific methodology that is particularly effective in addressing problems with a strong human element. Design thinking’s user-centered approach, iterative prototyping, and emphasis on empathy make it a valuable tool within the realm of creative problem-solving.

Types of problems that design thinking can help solve

Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that is particularly effective in addressing complex and ambiguous problems. It can be applied to a wide range of challenges across various domains. Here are some types of problems that design thinking can help solve:

  1. Product or Service Innovation: Design thinking can be used to develop innovative products or services by understanding user needs, identifying opportunities for improvement, and generating creative solutions.
  2. User Experience (UX) Design: Design thinking can enhance the user experience by focusing on understanding user behaviors, needs, and desires. It helps in creating intuitive and user-friendly interfaces and interactions.
  3. Organizational Change: Design thinking can facilitate organizational change by encouraging a human-centered approach. It can help organizations adapt to new technologies, processes, or cultural shifts while considering the needs and experiences of employees and stakeholders.
  4. Process Improvement: Design thinking can identify bottlenecks and inefficiencies in existing processes, enabling teams to ideate and prototype new ways of working. It promotes a collaborative and iterative approach to finding more effective and streamlined solutions.
  5. Social and Environmental Issues: Design thinking can be applied to address social and environmental challenges. By understanding the needs and perspectives of communities, it can generate sustainable and inclusive solutions to problems like poverty, healthcare access, climate change, and more.
  6. Strategy and Planning: Design thinking can inform strategic decision-making by exploring different scenarios, considering multiple stakeholders, and envisioning future possibilities. It encourages a holistic perspective and generates insights that inform long-term planning.
  7. Branding and Marketing: Design thinking can assist in developing brand strategies and marketing campaigns that resonate with target audiences. It focuses on understanding consumer behaviors and emotions to create compelling and impactful experiences.
  8. Educational Innovation: Design thinking can revolutionize education by creating learner-centric approaches. It can be used to design engaging curricula, develop interactive learning experiences, and enhance educational systems.

It’s important to note that design thinking is not limited to these areas and can be adapted to various contexts. Its strength lies in its human-centered, collaborative, and iterative approach, which can bring fresh perspectives and creative solutions to a wide range of problems.

Design thinking tools

Design thinking involves a variety of tools and techniques to facilitate the design process and encourage creativity and collaboration. Here are some commonly used design thinking tools:

  1. Empathy Maps: Empathy maps help designers understand users by visualizing their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and needs. It encourages empathy and insights into user experiences.
  2. Persona Profiles: Persona profiles are fictional representations of target users, based on research and data. They capture key characteristics, goals, behaviors, and motivations, making user needs more tangible and relatable.
  3. Journey Mapping: Journey maps illustrate the user’s experience and interactions with a product or service over time. It helps identify pain points, opportunities, and touchpoints, allowing designers to improve the overall user experience.
  4. Ideation Techniques: Ideation techniques, such as brainstorming, mind mapping, or SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, Reverse), encourage the generation of a wide range of ideas and solutions.
  5. Prototyping Tools: Various prototyping tools enable designers to create low-fidelity or high-fidelity prototypes, such as paper sketches, wireframes, mockups, or interactive digital prototypes. Tools like Sketch, Figma, InVision, or Marvel are commonly used for digital prototyping.
  6. User Testing: User testing involves gathering feedback from users through observation, interviews, or surveys. Usability testing tools like UserTesting or Optimal Workshop help capture user insights and evaluate the usability of a design.
  7. Affinity Diagramming: Affinity diagramming organizes and categorizes ideas or data into meaningful clusters. It helps identify patterns, themes, or insights that emerge from research or ideation activities.
  8. Storyboarding: Storyboarding visually tells a narrative or sequence of events through a series of illustrations or panels. It helps designers communicate and visualize user experiences or interactions with a product or service.
  9. Mindfulness Techniques: Mindfulness techniques, such as guided visualization or meditation, help designers cultivate a focused and open mindset, fostering creativity, clarity, and empathy.
  10. Design Critiques: Design critiques involve presenting design work to peers or stakeholders for constructive feedback and discussion. Critiques promote collaboration, diverse perspectives, and improvement of design solutions.

Designers often adapt and combine tools based on the specific project’s needs, team dynamics, and available resources. The goal is to use these tools to foster creativity, collaboration, and user-centered design throughout the design process.

An expanded list of Design Thinking tools commonly used throughout the design process:

  • Empathy Tools:
    • Empathy Maps
    • User Interviews
    • Observations
    • Surveys
    • Diary Studies
  • Research and Insights Tools:
    • Persona Profiles
    • Journey Maps
    • Stakeholder Maps
    • User Flow Diagrams
    • Problem Statements
  • Ideation and Brainstorming Tools:
    • Brainstorming Sessions
    • Mind Mapping
    • SCAMPER Technique
    • Random Word Technique
    • Worst Possible Idea
  • Concept Development Tools:
    • Sketching and Doodling
    • Storyboarding
    • Storytelling
    • Concept Maps
    • Rapid Prototyping
  • Prototyping Tools:
    • Paper Prototyping
    • Wireframing Tools (e.g., Sketch, Figma, Adobe XD)
    • Mockup Tools (e.g., InVision, Marvel)
    • Physical Prototyping Materials (e.g., cardboard, foam, clay)
    • 3D Printing and Rapid Prototyping Tools
  • User Testing and Feedback Tools:
    • Usability Testing
    • A/B Testing
    • Surveys and Questionnaires
    • Heatmaps and Eye-Tracking
    • Remote User Testing Platforms (e.g., UserTesting, Maze)
  • Visualization and Communication Tools:
    • Mood Boards
    • Visual Design Tools (e.g., Photoshop, Illustrator)
    • Data Visualization Tools (e.g., Tableau, Infogram)
    • Presentation Software (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote)
    • Communication Tools (e.g., Mural, Miro)
  • Collaboration and Teamwork Tools:
    • Design Workshops
    • Design Sprints
    • Design Critiques
    • Collaboration Platforms (e.g., Slack, Microsoft Teams)
    • Project Management Tools (e.g., Trello, Asana)
  • Evaluation and Measurement Tools:
    • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
    • Analytics Tools (e.g., Google Analytics, Mixpanel)
    • Surveys and Feedback Forms
    • User Engagement Metrics
    • Comparative Analysis
  • Iteration and Refinement Tools:
    • Retrospectives
    • Design Iteration Workshops
    • Design Thinking Canvas
    • Version Control Systems (e.g., Git)
    • Design System and Style Guides

Remember, the choice of tools depends on the specific project, goals, and resources available. Designers often combine multiple tools and adapt them to their needs, ensuring a human-centered and iterative approach throughout the design process.

Examples of design thinking

Design thinking has been applied in various real-world scenarios across different industries:

Airbnb is a company that has embraced design thinking principles to revolutionize the way people travel and experience accommodations. Here are some ways in which Airbnb has used design thinking:

  • Empathy and User Research: Airbnb places a strong emphasis on understanding the needs, desires, and pain points of both hosts and guests. They conduct in-depth user research, including interviews, observations, and usability testing, to gain empathy and insights into the experiences and motivations of their users. This research helps Airbnb design solutions that meet the specific needs of their diverse user base.
  • Prototyping and Iteration: Airbnb uses rapid prototyping techniques to test and refine their ideas. They create low-fidelity prototypes and gather feedback from users early on in the design process. This iterative approach allows them to identify flaws, make improvements, and validate their concepts before fully developing and implementing them. It helps Airbnb save time and resources by focusing on solutions that have been validated through user feedback.
  • Host and Guest Community Engagement: Airbnb actively engages with its host and guest community to gather feedback, understand their pain points, and co-create solutions. They conduct surveys, host events, and maintain open lines of communication to foster a sense of community and collaboration. By involving users in the design process, Airbnb ensures that their platform continues to evolve and meet the changing needs of their community.
  • Visual Design and User Interface: Airbnb’s website and mobile app are known for their user-friendly design and intuitive interface. The company invests in visual design to create an engaging and immersive user experience. By employing design thinking principles, they focus on factors such as clear navigation, appealing visuals, and intuitive search and booking processes. This attention to design details contributes to a positive user experience and reinforces the brand identity of Airbnb.
  • Airbnb Experiences: In addition to accommodations, Airbnb expanded into the realm of experiences. Through design thinking, they identified the desire of travelers to have unique and authentic local experiences. Airbnb Experiences allows hosts to offer guided tours, workshops, and activities, providing travelers with a more immersive and personalized experience. This innovation was driven by user insights and the understanding of shifting travel preferences.

By applying design thinking principles, Airbnb has been able to create a platform that connects hosts and guests in a unique way, delivering personalized and memorable travel experiences. The company’s success is attributed, in part, to its focus on empathy, iterative design, user engagement, and visual appeal.

Netflix is known for its successful implementation of design thinking principles to create a user-centric streaming experience. Here are a few ways in which Netflix has applied design thinking:

  • User Research: Netflix places a strong emphasis on understanding its users. The company conducts extensive user research, employing methods such as interviews, surveys, and data analysis to gain insights into user preferences, behaviors, and pain points. This helps them identify opportunities for improvement and innovation.
  • Personalized Recommendations: One of Netflix’s core features is its recommendation algorithm, which suggests content based on user preferences and viewing history. This recommendation system is a result of applying design thinking principles. By understanding the diverse tastes and interests of their users, Netflix is able to deliver personalized recommendations, enhancing the user experience and increasing engagement.
  • Iterative Design and Testing: Netflix continuously iterates and improves its user interface based on user feedback and data. They conduct extensive testing, gathering insights on how users interact with the platform and identifying areas for enhancement. This iterative design process helps Netflix refine its user interface, making it more intuitive, accessible, and enjoyable for users.
  • Seamless Viewing Experience: Netflix focuses on providing a seamless viewing experience across devices. They apply design thinking to optimize the user interface for different screen sizes, ensuring that users can easily navigate and access their content on various devices, including smartphones, tablets, and smart TVs. This user-centric approach contributes to a consistent and enjoyable streaming experience.
  • Original Content Creation: Netflix also applies design thinking principles to its content creation process. By analyzing viewer data and understanding user preferences, they identify content gaps and opportunities. This insight-driven approach helps Netflix produce original shows and movies that resonate with their audience, leading to increased viewership and customer satisfaction.

By employing design thinking principles throughout its operations, Netflix has been able to create a user-centric platform that offers personalized recommendations, seamless viewing experiences, and a vast library of engaging content. This approach has played a significant role in Netflix’s success as a leading streaming service.

GE Healthcare
A leading provider of medical imaging, monitoring, and diagnostic equipment, has utilized design thinking to innovate and improve healthcare solutions. Here are some examples of how GE Healthcare has applied design thinking:

  • Empathizing with Patients and Caregivers: GE Healthcare emphasizes empathy to better understand the experiences and needs of patients and healthcare providers. Through observations, interviews, and co-creation sessions, they gain insights into the challenges and pain points faced by these stakeholders. This understanding informs the design and development of medical devices and solutions that prioritize user-centered experiences.
  • Co-creation and Collaboration: GE Healthcare engages in collaborative design processes, working closely with healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to develop innovative solutions. By involving these stakeholders in brainstorming sessions and design workshops, they tap into diverse perspectives and expertise. This collaborative approach ensures that the final products meet the specific needs of the healthcare industry and enhance patient care.
  • Designing for Efficiency and Workflow: Design thinking is used by GE Healthcare to optimize the efficiency of healthcare workflows. By studying and mapping the workflow processes within healthcare facilities, they identify bottlenecks and areas of improvement. This analysis helps them design medical devices and software solutions that streamline processes, reduce errors, and enhance overall operational efficiency.
  • Iterative Prototyping and Testing: GE Healthcare employs rapid prototyping and iterative testing to refine their designs. They create prototypes of medical devices and solutions and test them in real-world healthcare settings. This iterative process allows them to gather feedback from users, identify usability issues, and make necessary refinements. By testing and refining prototypes, they ensure that the final products align with user needs and preferences.
  • Designing for Accessibility and Usability: GE Healthcare incorporates principles of accessibility and usability into their designs. They strive to make their medical devices and solutions intuitive, easy to use, and accessible to a wide range of users, including healthcare professionals with varying levels of expertise. This focus on usability helps to enhance efficiency and reduce errors in clinical settings.

Through the application of design thinking, GE Healthcare has been able to develop innovative medical devices, software solutions, and healthcare systems that improve patient outcomes, enhance operational efficiency, and meet the evolving needs of the healthcare industry. By prioritizing empathy, collaboration, and iterative design, GE Healthcare continues to drive advancements in healthcare technology.

Design thinking criticisms

While design thinking has gained widespread popularity and is widely embraced as an effective problem-solving methodology, it is not without its criticisms. Some of the common criticisms of design thinking include:

  1. Lack of Rigor: Critics argue that design thinking can sometimes prioritize rapid ideation and prototyping over rigorous analysis and evidence-based decision-making. This can result in solutions that are based more on intuition and subjective preferences rather than on robust research or data.
  2. Ambiguity and Subjectivity: Design thinking often deals with ambiguous and ill-defined problem spaces. Critics contend that this ambiguity can lead to subjective interpretations and solutions that may not be based on concrete evidence or objective criteria. The emphasis on creative thinking and divergent ideas can make it challenging to evaluate and compare potential solutions objectively.
  3. Overemphasis on Empathy: While empathy is a core principle of design thinking, some critics argue that excessive reliance on empathy can limit innovation. They argue that relying too heavily on user insights and existing needs may hinder the creation of breakthrough ideas that users may not articulate or be aware of themselves.
  4. Lack of Concrete Implementation: Design thinking is primarily focused on the early stages of problem-solving, such as problem framing, ideation, and prototyping. Critics argue that it may not provide sufficient guidance on the practical implementation and execution of solutions, potentially leaving a gap between ideation and successful implementation.
  5. Limited Application: Critics suggest that design thinking may be more suited to certain types of problems, such as product or service design, and may not be as effective in addressing complex, systemic issues or those requiring technical expertise. They argue that design thinking may oversimplify complex problems and may not be the most appropriate approach in all contexts.
  6. Lack of Diversity and Inclusion: Critics contend that design thinking methodologies may not always adequately address diversity and inclusion. They argue that the dominant perspectives and biases of designers and teams can influence the problem definition, solution generation, and user research, potentially excluding marginalized voices and perpetuating existing inequalities.

It’s important to note that these criticisms do not invalidate the value of design thinking, but rather highlight areas of improvement and the need for critical thinking and adaptation to specific contexts. Many proponents of design thinking acknowledge these concerns and advocate for combining it with other methodologies or frameworks to create a more robust problem-solving approach.

And more…

UX and UI Design
This article looks at UX and UI design. What it is. What these designers do. Goals, research, analysis, testing, iteration, tools and design principles. Read more here.

More Information

American Marketing Association: The 5 Phases of Design Thinking
Harvard Business School: 5 Examples of Design Thinking in business
Harvard Business School: What is creative problem-solving and why it is important?
Interaction Design Foundation: Design Thinking
Nielsen Norman Group: Design Thinking 101

Proven professional with 25+ years of experience in the digital marketing and creative marketing. 20 years of corporate experience as Creative Director, Head of Web, Graphic & Brand at Rezidor SAS Hospitality, Head of Web and Graphic at Saxo Bank, Online Senior Manager at Menu A/S, Online Marketing Manager at Milestone Systems and Creative Director at Napatech. 5 years as a marketing account manager and 13 years as a creative director in agencies. 12 years leadership experience combined with a master in economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and a master in internet marketing, advanced social media certificate, University of San Francisco, and UX Design Professional Certificate. icon

Proven professional with 25+ years of experience in digital marketing and creative marketing. 20 years of corporate experience as Creative Director, Head of Web, Graphic & Brand at Rezidor SAS Hospitality, Head of Web and Graphic at Saxo Bank, Online Senior Manager at Menu A/S, Online Marketing Manager at Milestone Systems and Creative Director at Napatech. 5 years as a marketing account manager and 13 years as a creative director in agencies. 12 years leadership experience combined with a master in economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, a master in internet marketing and advanced social media certificate, University of San Francisco, and UX Design Professional Certificate.

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